June 24

From a Linear to Circular Business Model: The Next Big Shift in the Chemical Industry

Sherman Roto-Tank

June 24, 2023

In the face of mounting environmental concerns and the urgent need for sustainable practices, businesses worldwide are rethinking their operational strategies. The traditional linear "take-make-dispose" model, which has been the backbone of global commerce for centuries, is increasingly seen as unsustainable.

This model, characterized by a one-way flow of resources and a high rate of waste, is giving way to a more sustainable, circular approach.

This shift is not just a passing trend; it's a fundamental change in the way businesses operate, driven by a combination of economic, environmental, and societal factors.

Understanding the Business Models

To fully appreciate the significance of this shift, it's essential to understand the fundamental differences between linear and circular business models.

A Linear Business Model

A Linear Business Model is a traditional business model that follows a straight line from the production to the consumption of goods or services. Businesses extract raw materials, transform them into products, and sell these products to consumers, who eventually dispose of them.

It is often described as a "take-make-dispose" model.

A Linear Business Model
  • Take: Raw materials are extracted from the environment to create products.
  • Make: These raw materials are then transformed into products through manufacturing processes.
  • Dispose: Once the consumer is done using the product, it is discarded, often ending up in landfills or incinerators.

This model is called "linear" because it's a one-way journey from resource extraction to waste.

While it has been incredibly successful in providing goods and services to a growing global population, it has also led to significant environmental challenges, including resource depletion, pollution, and waste.

Linear business models are common among companies today for several reasons:

  • Simplicity: Linear models are straightforward and easy to understand. They follow a simple path from production to consumption to disposal. This simplicity makes them easy to manage and implement.
  • Established Supply Chains: Many businesses have supply chains that are built around the linear model. Changing to a circular model can require significant changes to these supply chains, which can be costly and complex.
  • Consumer Behavior: Consumers are accustomed to the linear model, where they buy a product, use it, and then dispose of it. Changing this behavior can be challenging.
  • Economic Incentives: The linear model can be profitable in the short term. Businesses can make money by selling more products, and there's often little financial incentive to make products more durable or recyclable.
  • Regulatory Environment: In many places, regulations do not encourage circularity. For example, waste disposal is often cheap and recycling is not always incentivized.
  • Lack of Awareness or Expertise: Not all businesses are aware of the benefits of circular models, or they may lack the expertise to implement them.

A Circular Business Model

On the other hand, a circular business model aims to keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them while in use, and recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life. 

It's a model that's designed to be restorative and regenerative by design, aiming to redefine growth and focus on positive society-wide benefits.

Here are the key characteristics of a Circular Business Model:

  • Resource Efficiency: CBMs aim to reduce the input of raw materials and energy in the production process. This is achieved by reusing, recycling, or repurposing materials.
  • Closed-Loop System: In a CBM, the lifecycle of a product doesn't end after consumption. Instead, the product or its components are recycled or repurposed, creating a closed-loop system where waste is minimized.
  • Product as a Service: CBMs often involve shifting from selling products to providing services. For example, instead of selling a product outright, a company might lease it, maintaining ownership so they can repair, upgrade, or repurpose it when the lease ends.
  • Value Creation: CBMs aim to create value not just through the production and sale of goods or services, but also through the management of their lifecycle. This can involve everything from design for longevity or disassembly, to take-back schemes and remanufacturing.
  • Sustainability: By reducing waste and making better use of resources, CBMs contribute to sustainability. They are often part of a company's corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy or a broader commitment to sustainable development.
From A Linear To Circular Business Model: The Next Big Shift In The Chemical Industry

It's important to note that implementing a circular business model can involve significant changes to a company's operations, supply chain, and relationship with customers. However, it can also offer opportunities for cost savings, innovation, and improved customer relationships.

The following table shows the key differences between a Linear Business Model and a Circular Business Model:

Linear Business Model

Circular Business Model

Resource Use

One-time use (Take-Make-Dispose)

Efficient use, reuse, and recycling

Product Lifecycle

Straight line from production to disposal

Closed-loop system

Waste Generation




Not sustainable in the long term

Promotes sustainability

Product Ownership

Customer owns the product

Company retains ownership (in many cases)

Economic Focus

Sales volume

Value-added services

The Shift from a Linear to Circular Business Model

The transition from linear to circular business models represents a significant shift in the way companies operate and view their role within the broader economic and environmental landscape.

This shift is not an isolated phenomenon but rather a response to a confluence of external pressures and an internal realization of the potential advantages of adopting a circular approach.

Several external factors are driving this changes include:

  • Rising Inflation: Inflation increases the cost of raw materials and operational expenses. In a circular model, by reusing and recycling materials and offering additional services, companies can offset these inflationary pressures.
  • Gross Margin Erosion: This occurs when production costs increase faster than product prices. Circular models combat this by improving resource efficiency and reducing waste while increasing the lifecycle of equipment, which can lower production and waste management costs.
  • Environmental Sustainability: As awareness of environmental issues grows, companies are under increasing pressure to reduce their environmental impact. A circular model can help companies reduce waste, lower their carbon footprint, and use resources more efficiently.
  • Resource Scarcity: As natural resources become scarcer and more expensive, companies are looking for ways to use resources more efficiently. A circular model can help companies get more value out of the resources they use.
  • Regulatory Pressure: Governments around the world are introducing regulations to encourage recycling, reduce waste, and promote sustainability. Companies that adopt a circular model can stay ahead of these regulations and avoid potential fines or penalties.
  • Innovation and Competitive Advantage: Adopting a circular model can drive innovation and give companies a competitive advantage. It can lead to new business models, new products, and new ways of engaging with customers.
  • Investor Expectations: Increasingly, investors are looking at environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors when making investment decisions. Companies that adopt sustainable practices, like a circular business model, can be more attractive to these investors.

Case Study: The Chemical Industry

The chemical industry provides a compelling case study of the transition from a linear to circular business model. This industry, which is a critical part of the global economy, has traditionally operated on a linear model, with raw materials transformed into chemicals that are used in a wide range of products, from plastics to pharmaceuticals.

However, this model is increasingly seen as unsustainable due to the industry's significant environmental footprint and the hazardous nature of many chemical wastes.

In response to these challenges, some companies in the chemical industry are pioneering the use of circular business models. One approach is chemical leasing, where the chemical provider retains ownership of the chemicals and sells the services they can perform.
Chemical leasing leads to more efficient and economical use of chemicals. It contributes to lower water, raw material, and energy consumption, significantly reducing the environmental impact of the production process.

It also reduces occupational health and safety risks and protects human health from the hazardous effects of chemicals. By sharing the added value created through the more economic use of chemicals, it creates a win-win situation that delivers financial benefits for the provider and the customer, reduces environmental impacts, and improves overall health and safety.

Challenges in Transitioning to a Circular Business Model

Transitioning to a circular model is not without challenges. Businesses face operational hurdles, such as the need to redesign products for durability and recyclability, reconfigure supply chains, and develop new capabilities. The following outlines a list of potential hurdles for organizations making the shift from a traditional linear model to a circular business model:

  • Design and Manufacturing: Products must be designed for durability, repair, and recycling, which may require new materials and manufacturing processes.
  • Supply Chain Management: A circular model often requires changes to procurement, logistics, and waste management practices. Companies may need to develop new relationships with suppliers and partners who can support circular practices.
  • Consumer Acceptance: Consumers may be used to buying and disposing of products in a linear model. Companies need to educate consumers and potentially change their behavior to accept new modes of consumption, such as product leasing or take-back schemes.
  • Business Model Innovation: Companies must develop new business models to deliver profitability in a circular economy. This might involve exploring new revenue streams and rethinking pricing models.
  • Regulatory Barriers: In regions where waste disposal is cheap, and recycling is not incentivized, regulatory barriers can make it economically challenging for businesses to adopt circular practices.
  • Technology and Infrastructure: Transitioning to a circular model may require new technologies and infrastructure, such as recycling facilities or systems for tracking and managing product lifecycles.
  • Investment and Financing: Transitioning to a circular model can require significant upfront investment. Companies may need to secure financing for this transition and demonstrate to investors that the circular model can deliver a return on investment.

The Future of Business is Circular

Despite these challenges, the transition to a circular business model is accelerating. Businesses across a range of industries, from furniture and electronics to fashion and chemicals, are embracing the circular economy. They are driven by a combination of economic, environmental, and societal pressures, as well as the recognition that the future of business is circular.

The chemical industry, with its significant environmental footprint and the hazardous nature of many of its wastes, is at the forefront of this transition. Through innovative approaches such as chemical leasing, companies in the chemical industry are demonstrating that a circular model is not only feasible but also profitable.


The transition from linear to circular business models is more than just a trend. It's a fundamental shift in how businesses operate, driven by a combination of economic, environmental, and societal factors.

While the path to circularity may be challenging, the potential benefits - for businesses, consumers, and the planet - are immense. As the example of the chemical industry shows, those who embrace this shift can reap significant rewards.

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